A standard is a long pole with badges or flags on.
The standard which most closely resembles the modern flag is the vexillum, a small square piece of cloth attached to a cross-bar carried on a pole. This standard shows what legion the soldiers belong to.
The lettering on this flag is LEGXX.
LEG is the abbreviation of Legio (legion)
This is the standard of the Twentieth legion.
The vexillumwas carried by the Vexillarius
A standard bearing an image of the emperor (the imago) helped soldiers feel strong and brave in fierce fighting.
The standard was carried by the imaginifer.
The imago was a three dimensional portrait representation of the Emperor made from beaten metal.
A standard bearing an image of the emperor (the imago)
The standard of the first legion was the aquila, or golden eagle - made of silver or bronze and showing the bird with outstretched wings. It was the greatest disgrace if the eagle was captured.
The aquila (golden eagle) standard
Each of the 59 centuries also had its own spear - standard (signum).
The images below show an example of a signum. It is composed of a number of philarae (disks), along with a number of other elements mounted on a pole, topped with a manus (human hand) image.
The signum was carried by the signifer.
This tall standard served as a rallying point for the men in battle.
||A horn-player called cornicen blew his horn to give signals to tell the soldiers what to do. For example, he might give the signal for soldiers to gather around their standard
The Animal Skins
The standard bearers wore animal skins over their uniforms. The heads of the animals were carried over the bearers' helmets so that the teeth were actually seen on the forehead.
A standard bearer
A Lion (leo) pelt is thought to have been generally worn only by the Aqualifer, Signifer or Vexillarius of a legion (legio unit.
Bear (ursus) and Wolf (lupus) pelts were frequently worn by the standard bearers of century and cohort units.